SATIRE-S uses full-disc magnetograms and continuum images of the Sun to
quantify the fractional disc area coverage by different surface components
(quiet Sun, sunspot umbrae, sunspot penumbrae, faculae and network) as well
as their spatial distribution. The most recent version of the model uses the data from the NSO KP
(1974-1999), SoHO/MDI (1999-2009) and SDO/HMI (since 2010) and is described
in detail in
Yeo et al. (2014, A&A 570, A85). Updates on request.
UV irradiance (115-400 nm; 1.1.1974-31.12.2007) from Krivova et al. (2009, JGR doi:10.1029/2009JD012375).
SSI (115-160000 nm; 1974-2009) from Ball et al. (2014, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 71, 4086-4101).
Alternative reconstruction of TSI and SSI based on what is termed the proxy approach. Solar irradiance variability is given by the linear combination of facular and sunspot indices, the coefficients of which is determined by their regression to measured solar irradiance. It has been demonstrated that earlier proxy models underestimate UV SSI variability as a result of them ignoring the uncertainty in the index data in the regression by applying ordinary least squares (Yeo et al. 2017, JGR doi:10.1002/2016JA023733). EMPIRE, by applying a regression scheme that takes the uncertainty in the index data into account, produces UV SSI variability consistent with SATIRE and measurements.
The first model of solar irradiance variability to, by incorporating state-of-the-art 3D MHD numerical simulations of the solar surface and atmosphere, not require any calibration to measured variability (Yeo et al. 2020, GRL doi:10.1029/2020GL090243). (Other models, without exception, contain free parameters constrained by comparing the model output to solar irradiance observations.)
Alternative reconstruction of TSI based on the photometric sum approach (Chatzistergos et al. 2020, J. Space Weather. Space Clim. doi:10.1051/swsc/2020047). Total solar irradiance is reconstructed with a linear regression of the photometric sum series to the PMOD TSI composite series.
The photometric sum series are computed from full disc Rome/PSPT observations in the Ca II K line and a blue/red continuum interval.
Composite of sunspot group area, daily total sunspot area and PSI calculated after cross-calibration of measurements by different observers:
Mandal et al.
(2020, A&A doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202037547)
Reconstruction of the F10.7 from the daily total sunspot area:
Yeo et al.
(2020, A&A doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202037739)
Composite of the sunspot group number after cross-calibration of measurements by different observers: (Chatzistergos et al. 2017, A&A doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201630045)
Composite of plage area in the Ca II K line calculated after cross-calibration of Ca II K spectroheliograms and filtergrams from 38 observatories: (Chatzistergos et al. 2020, A&A doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202037746)
14C and 10Be are produced in the terrestrial atmosphere through
interactions with the galactic cosmic ray, which is modulated
by solar activity. It is therefore possible to link, through physical models, the concentration of 14C and 10Be
to the evolution of the solar surface magnetic field. Taking this approach, we derived the solar modulation
potential over the Holocene, and the corresponding reconstruction of the sunspot number from the 14C and 10Be records:
Wu et al.
(2018, A&A doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201731892)
A composite of SATIRE-H, derived as above but using the 14C and 10Be records seperately, SATIRE-T (1610-1974) and SATIRE-S (1974-2015) provides the solar forcing input for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project - Phase 4 or PMIP4 (Jungclaus et al. 2016, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. doi:10.5194/gmd-2016-278).
There is an alternate version of the above data sets (14C-based, 10Be-based), where the 1850-2015 segment is given by the SSI data set of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 6 or CMIP6 ( Mathes et al. 2017, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. doi:10.5194/gmd-10-2247-2017), which is an amalgamation of the SATIRE-T, SATIRE-S and NRL models.